Pharmacology Trivia

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  1. Is there a difference in blood flow (Q) between an athlete and non-athlete?
    • Blood flow increases during exercise.
    • At rest, blood flow is similar to non-athletes, except that it takes less beats/min to push the same amount of blood.

Fetus and Neonate

  1. How is a fetus connected to the placenta via an umbilical cord?
    FetalCirculation.pngClick to enlarge


  1. Are everyone's small intestines folded up in the same way? see
    The small intestine is made up of the duodenum (roughly 12 inches long), Jejunum and Ileum. The duodenum is covered by sheath of tissue called retroperitoneal fascia.
    The means that the duodenum itself is immobile and has a fixed path. The segments of the duodenum are D1, D2, D3, and D4. After D4 there is an anatomical landmark
    called the ligament of trietz. Beyond this ligament is the jejunum which is not covered by fascia. This means that the jejunum and ileum are free to float around. The
    jejunum and ileum are loosely anchored via the mesentary. Once you reach the end of the ileum and beginning of the colon, the bowel becomes fixed again on the right
    side with fascia that covers the ascending colon.
    In other words, parts of everyones small intestine are the same (duodenum and terminal ileum). Everything in-between is a unique configuration.
  2. What is the medium in which the intestines float? Is the abdominal cavity an air gap, or are we full of liquid? see
    There is a small amount of liquid (intraperitoneal fluid) that lubricates the small bowel. This fluid is predominately made up of a small amount of protein (albumin), glucose and
    electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, HC03). Normally there is only a tiny amount of fluid, however in some cases, the volume of liquid can rise (resulting in a tense distended abdomen). We call
    this asicites. It has yellow color similar to urine.