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- Is there a difference in blood flow (Q) between an athlete and non-athlete?
- Blood flow increases during exercise.
- At rest, blood flow is similar to non-athletes, except that it takes less beats/min to push the same amount of blood.
Fetus and Neonate
- How is a fetus connected to the placenta via an umbilical cord?
- Click to enlarge
- Are everyone's small intestines folded up in the same way? see
- The small intestine is made up of the duodenum (roughly 12 inches long), Jejunum and Ileum. The duodenum is covered by sheath of tissue called retroperitoneal fascia.
- The means that the duodenum itself is immobile and has a fixed path. The segments of the duodenum are D1, D2, D3, and D4. After D4 there is an anatomical landmark
- called the ligament of trietz. Beyond this ligament is the jejunum which is not covered by fascia. This means that the jejunum and ileum are free to float around. The
- jejunum and ileum are loosely anchored via the mesentary. Once you reach the end of the ileum and beginning of the colon, the bowel becomes fixed again on the right
- side with fascia that covers the ascending colon.
- In other words, parts of everyones small intestine are the same (duodenum and terminal ileum). Everything in-between is a unique configuration.
- What is the medium in which the intestines float? Is the abdominal cavity an air gap, or are we full of liquid? see
- There is a small amount of liquid (intraperitoneal fluid) that lubricates the small bowel. This fluid is predominately made up of a small amount of protein (albumin), glucose and
- electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, HC03). Normally there is only a tiny amount of fluid, however in some cases, the volume of liquid can rise (resulting in a tense distended abdomen). We call
- this asicites. It has yellow color similar to urine.